Spreadsheets offer a variety of text functions that allow you to manipulate and analyze string data effectively. Whether it's combining text, extracting parts of a string, converting text cases, or even replacing specific portions of a string, text functions have you covered. This tutorial aims to familiarize you with some of the most useful text functions in spreadsheets.


The CONCATENATE function is used to join two or more text strings into one. The CONCAT function does the same thing and is a more modern function available in some spreadsheet software.

The syntax is =CONCATENATE(text1, [text2], ...). For example, to join the contents of cell A1 and B1, you would use:


LEFT, RIGHT, and MID Functions

These functions allow you to extract a specific number of characters from a text string. The LEFT function extracts from the start of the string, RIGHT from the end, and MID from any point you specify within the string.

For instance, to extract the first three characters from the text in cell A1, you would use =LEFT(A1, 3). To extract the last three characters, you would use =RIGHT(A1, 3). And to extract three characters starting from the second character, you would use =MID(A1, 2, 3).

UPPER, LOWER, and PROPER Functions

These functions change the case of text strings. UPPER converts a text string to all uppercase, LOWER to all lowercase, and PROPER to title case (first letter of each word is capitalized).

For example, to convert the text in cell A1 to uppercase, you would use =UPPER(A1). To convert it to lowercase, you would use =LOWER(A1). And to convert it to title case, you would use =PROPER(A1).


SUBSTITUTE function replaces old text with new text in a text string. The syntax is =SUBSTITUTE(text, old_text, new_text, [instance_num]). REPLACE function replaces characters within text at a specific location. The syntax is =REPLACE(old_text, start_num, num_chars, new_text).

For instance, to replace all instances of "old" with "new" in cell A1, you would use =SUBSTITUTE(A1, "old", "new"). And to replace the first three characters in A1 with "new", you would use =REPLACE(A1, 1, 3, "new").


Text functions in spreadsheets are powerful tools for manipulating and analyzing string data. They provide a range of capabilities, from joining and splitting text strings, changing text case, extracting specific portions of a string, to replacing specific text. These functions can help you handle and clean your data more effectively, thereby improving the quality of your data analysis. With a little practice, you'll find these functions indispensable in your spreadsheet work.

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